After the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro defeated the highly developed but heavily divided Inca Empire the Spanish viceroyalty, officially established itself 1542 in Lima and had now control over all of the Spanish colonies in South America.
Lima became the principal city of Spain’s colonial possessions in South America, where all its South American colonies were administered from. It developed to one of the most distinguished and aristocratic colonial capitals and the major Spanish stronghold in the Americas.
Peru’s Independence in 1821
Peru’s independence movement was led by José de San Martín from Argentina and Simón Bolívar from Venezuela. San Martín proclaimed Peruvian independence from Spain on the 28th of July 1821. It was successfully completed in December 1824, when Venezuelan General Antonio José de Sucre defeated the Spanish troops at Ayacucho, ending the Spanish reign in South America.
The Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded Lima in
The Vegan Society was founded in November 1944 and we’ve made tremendous progress since.
The Vegan Society may have been established 75 years ago but veganism has been around much longer. Evidence of people choosing to avoid animal products can be traced back over 2,000 years. As early as 500 BCE, Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras promoted benevolence among all species and followed what could be described as a vegetarian diet. Around the same time, Siddhārtha Gautama (better known as the Buddha) was discussing vegetarian diets with his followers.
Fast forward to 1806 CE and the earliest concepts of veganism are just starting to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.
The first modern-day vegans
In November 1944, Donald Watson (right and below) called a meeting
Learn new strategies, resources, and techniques to sharpen your family history skills at the NGS 2020 Family History Conference.
The upcoming NGS 2020 Family History Conference will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah, and will offer the best and most expansive series of lectures to advance your research. Salt Lake City is easily accessible and has some of the best genealogical research resources in the US.
The NGS Family History Conference, 20–23 May 2020 is your opportunity to choose from more than 175 lectures presented by many nationally recognized speakers, explore an exhibit hall filled with more than 80 exhibitors, and network with more than 2,000 genealogists. Every NGS conference has a different theme with a new program top to bottom—so there is always more to learn and discover. Registration is now open.
The echoes of our ancestors resonate within us.Their voices, beliefs, cultures, choices, experiences, and traditions
Then, later in the broadcast, the team shows the current map of who’s winning which state. And that, too, is jarring.
The Democrats are blue and the Republicans are … yellow? Why aren’t they red? The answer is: Because the assignation of red-as-Republican, blue-as-Democrat didn’t become the standard until the last election of the third century in which America existed: the election of 2000.
There have been a number of good assessments of how the way in which we depict the two parties has evolved. One of the earliest appeared here in the Post, shortly before the 2004 election. There was one shortly after that in Washington Monthly which is often cited; probably the most thorough is this one, from the Smithsonian.
What’s clear is that, prior to 2000, talking about “red states” and “blue states” wouldn’t necessarily have resulted in any understanding from your audience. In 1992, David Nyhan
The story of the Royal Society is the story of modern science.
Our origins lie in a 1660 ‘invisible college’ of natural philosophers and physicians. Today we are the UK’s national science academy and a Fellowship of some 1,600 of the world’s most eminent scientists.
Nullius in verba
The very first ‘learned society’ meeting on 28 November 1660 followed a lecture at Gresham College by Christopher Wren. Joined by other leading polymaths including Robert Boyle and John Wilkins, the group soon received royal approval, and from 1663 it would be known as ‘The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge’.
The Royal Society’s motto ‘Nullius in verba’ is taken to mean ‘take nobody’s word for it’. It is an expression of the determination of Fellows to withstand the domination of authority and to verify all statements by an appeal to facts determined by experiment.
The first recorded instance of the body politic metaphor appears in the Rigveda (c. 1500 bce), the oldest of the sacred books of Hinduism. There the South Asian caste system is explained by comparing the priesthood to the mouth, soldiers to the arms, shepherds to the thighs, and peasants to the feet of humankind.
A well-known ancient example of a bodily metaphor appears in “The Belly and the Members,” a fable attributed to the legendary Greek fabulist Aesop. In the fable, the other members of the body revolt against the belly, which they think is doing none of the work while getting all of the food. The hands, mouth, teeth, and legs initiate a strike, but after a few days they realize that they are weak and ailing. They thus learn that cooperation between all members of the body, including the invisible belly, is vital for
Cuba is an island nation located on the northern rim of the Caribbean Sea.
It is the largest of the Greater Antilles islands. To Cuba’s east
is the island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Off the southeastern coast of Cuba lies Jamaica, and to the north is the
state of Florida. In 1992 Cuba had an estimated population of nearly 11
million. Since 1959, Cuba has been led by President Fidel Castro, whose
socialist revolution overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista. In the years
before the breakup of the Soviet Union, Cuba maintained a close political
and economic relationship with that nation. Cuba has had a distant and
antagonistic relationship with the United States. Sugar is the principal
export of Cuba, but the Cuban economy, by most accounts, is weak.
The Cuban people are descendants of Spanish colonizers and of
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Honduras is approximately 1000 miles southwest of Miami and has a mainly mountainous area of 48,200 square miles. To the North it has a large coastal line with the Caribbean sea and to the South it enjoys a small access to the Pacific. Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, got its tongue twisting name from the ancient Nahuatl language, and translated means “silver mountain” In effect, Tegucigalpa came to being during colonial times as a mining center. “Tegus” as its inhabitants affectionately call it, is a mix of an old colonial city that has turned into the modern capital of Honduras. San Pedro Sula is called the industrial capital of Honduras. 80% of all industrial parks are within 20 miles of the city. The coastal city of Ceiba and El Progresso are the third