Browsed by
Tag: Encyclopedia

Political Prisoners | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

Political Prisoners | The Holocaust Encyclopedia

Nazi Persecution of Political Opponents

After World War I (1914-1918), nationalist, right-wing political movements in Germany and Austria tended to see the nation in collective terms as a Volksgemeinschaft or national community. Racist nationalists on the extreme right of the political spectrum saw this collective as a voelkische Gemeinschaft, by which they meant a racial group that they considered superior. Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, among other radical right-wing groups, adopted this view of the German nation.

Unlike Western liberals or nationalists, the Nazis did not find value in individuality. For the Nazis, individualism was an egotistic, culture-corroding, Jewish value that would tear apart the fabric of the communal nation. The Nazis insisted that the individual had value only in his or her membership in the collective racial community.

A key Nazi criticism of Weimar democracy in particular and liberal democracy in general was that it emphasized the individual.

Read More
Cicero | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Cicero | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

cicero-02Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 B.C.E. and was murdered on December 7, 43 B.C.E. His life coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, and he was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, and his writings are now a valuable source of information to us about those events. He was, among other things, an orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher. Making sense of his writings and understanding his philosophy requires us to keep that in mind. He placed politics above philosophical study; the latter was valuable in its own right but was even more valuable as the means to more effective political action. The only periods of his life in which he wrote philosophical works were the times he was forcibly prevented from taking part in politics.

While Cicero is currently not considered an exceptional thinker, largely on

Read More
Political economy – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Political economy – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government.

It developed in the 17th century as the study of the economies of states which placed the theory of property in the theory of government.[1]
Some political economists proposed the labour theory of value (first introduced by John Locke, developed by Adam Smith and later Karl Marx), according to which labour is the real source of value. Many political economists also looked at the accelerating development of technology, whose role in economic and social relationships grew ever more important.

In late 19th century, the term “political economy” was generally replaced by the term economics, which was used by those seeking to place the study of economy on a mathematical basis, rather than studying the relationships within production and consumption.

In the present, political economy

Read More
Aristotle: Politics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Aristotle: Politics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

aristotleIn his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) describes the happy life intended for man by nature as one lived in accordance with virtue, and, in his Politics, he describes the role that politics and the political community must play in bringing about the virtuous life in the citizenry.

The Politics also provides analysis of the kinds of political community that existed in his time and shows where and how these cities fall short of the ideal community of virtuous citizens.

Although in some ways we have clearly moved beyond his thought (for example, his belief in the inferiority of women and his approval of slavery in at least some circumstances), there remains much in Aristotle’s philosophy that is valuable today.

In particular, his views on the connection between the well-being of the political community and that of the citizens who make it up, his belief that citizens must

Read More
Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A government is a group of people that have the power to rule in a territory, according to the law. This territory may be a country, a state or province within a country, or a region.

  • Governments make laws, rules, and regulations, collect taxes and print money.
  • Governments have systems of justice that list the acts or activities that are against the law and describe the punishments for breaking the law.
  • Governments have a police force to make sure people follow the laws.
  • Governments have diplomats who communicate with the governments of other countries by having meetings. Diplomats try to solve problems or disagreements between two countries, which can help countries to avoid war, make commercial agreements, and exchange cultural or social experiences and knowledge.
  • Governments have a military force such as an army that protects the country from terrorists and other major threats that attack or which can be
Read More
Society – New World Encyclopedia

Society – New World Encyclopedia

A social network diagram

A society is a grouping of individuals, which is characterized by common interest and may have distinctive culture and institutions. A “society” may refer to a particular ethnic group, such as the Nuer, to a nation state, such as Switzerland, or to a broader cultural group, such as Western society. An organized group of people associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes may also be considered a society.

Human beings are essentially social creatures, with the desire and need to be in close contact with others. Beginning with the family, human life is one of interdependence and sharing of physical, mental, and spiritual items. While conflict both within and between societies has been the dominant feature of human history, all societies strive to maintain harmony within (to ensure the happiness and safety of their members) and, at least in more

Read More