The government of Iraq has evolved over millennia, with thousands of years of tyranny turning into a newly formed federal parliamentary representative democratic republic.
It is a multi-party system whereby the executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers as the head of government, as well as the President of Iraq, and legislative power is vested in the Council of Representatives and the Federation Council.
The current Prime Minister of Iraq is Haider al-Abadi, who holds most of the executive authority and appoints the Council of Ministers, which acts as a cabinet and/or government.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic. The federal government is composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions.
The legislative branch is composed of the Council of Representatives and a Federation Council. The executive branch is composed of the President, the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The federal judiciary is composed of the Higher Judicial Council, the Supreme Court, the Court of Cassation, the Public Prosecution Department, the Judiciary Oversight Commission, and other federal courts that are regulated by law. One such court is the Central Criminal Court.
High Commissions and Council of Representatives
The Independent High Commission for Human Rights, the Independent High Electoral Commission, and the Commission on Integrity are independent commissions subject to monitoring by the Council of Representatives. The Central Bank of Iraq, the Board of Supreme Audit, the Communications and Media Commission, and the Endowment Commission are financially and administratively independent institutions. The Foundation of Martyrs is attached to the Council of Ministers. The Federal Public Service Council regulates the affairs of the federal public service, including appointment and promotion.
Frequently Asked Questions about Iraqi Government
1. What is the Iraqi Government defined as?
Iraq’s full name is “Republic of Iraq,” or “Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq.” It is a parliamentary democracy which uses a federal system of government.
2. How many branches of Iraqi government are there? What are they?
There are 3 branches: Executive, Legislative and Judicial.
3. Who represents each branch?
Executive Branch: The Presidency Council, which consists of one President and as many as three Vice Presidents, and the Council of Ministers, which includes one prime minister, three deputy prime ministers and 30 cabinet members.
Chief of State: President TBD 2014
Head of Government: Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi elected 2014
Legislative Branch: The Council of Representatives (COR), an elected (4-year terms) group of 325 members representing the populace of Iraq.
Judicial Branch: The Higher Judicial Council, the Federal Supreme Court (9 judges), the Court of Cassation, the Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission, as well as other federal courts.
4. What political parties exist in Iraqi government?
There are over 31 major political parties in Iraq, with many smaller tribal parties also in existence. A few main parties that now makeup the Council of Representatives include: Iraqi National Movement, State of Law Coalition, Iraqi National Alliance, Kurdistan Alliance.
5. What does the legal system in Iraq consist of?
Civil and Islamic law.
6. How has Iraqi government changed over Iraqi history?
Iraq declared independence from the League of Nations mandate under British administration on October 3rd, 1932. This marked the first year of true independence and recognition for the nation.
7. How has it changed within the last decade?
On June 28th, 2004, the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred power to the Iraqi Interim Government. On October 15th, 2005, the first Iraqi consitution was ratified, but is still subject to review by the Constitutional Review Committee and a public referendum.
8. What are the main issues surrounding the current Iraqi government?
Political pressure groups are causing great inner political turmoil, with Sunni and Shia militias as well as various tribal parties.
9. Where is the Iraqi government located?
The capital of Iraq, Baghdad.
10. What is the national symbol of Iraq?
A golden eagle.
Political Parties of Iraq
Iraq Government vs. Terrorism