Courses, Entrance Exams, Careers, Subjects, Degree, Eligibility, Skills

Courses, Entrance Exams, Careers, Subjects, Degree, Eligibility, Skills

Law is a career stream that candidates pursue at undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG) or doctorate (PhD) level to practice legal profession in India. Law as a career is very popular among students in India. The popularity of this stream can be judged from the fact that famous people like Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela as well as the former US President Barack Obama were lawyers.

Scope of law as a career is immense in India. These days, law graduates do not just opt to get dressed in black and white apparels and head to court but also make their presence feel in corporate houses, law firms, law agencies, administrative services and the likes.

A career in law requires one to put in a lot of hardwork and long working hours. The preferred specialisations in law are either criminal or civil. However, these days other branches are also gaining popularity such as cyber law, patent law as well as corporate law

To make a career in law at the UG level, aspirants can pursue five year duration integrated LLB courses such as BA LLBBBA LLBBSc LLB or BCom LLB. Candidates can also opt to pursue a three year LLB course after completing their graduation. Apart from this, candidates who wish to study further can obtain a master’s degree (LLM) followed by a doctoral degree (PhD).

Law Eligibility & Entrance Exams

Law colleges across India have different selection process and eligibility criteria for admissions at UG and PG levels. However, given below is the basic eligibility criteria that candidates need to fulfill to secure admission in law courses offered at UG and PG levels:

Eligibility for UG Law Courses: Candidates are eligible to secure admission in UG law courses if they have cleared Higher Secondary School/Intermediate (10+2) or its equivalent exam from a recognised board with not less than 45% marks in aggregate.

Eligibility for PG Law Courses: For admission in LLB (3 years) course, aspirants need to be graduates from a recognised university. Also, for admission in LLM course candidates need to possess an LLB or equivalent degree from a recognised university.

Desired Skills for Law

Other than the educational qualification mentioned above, candidates should possess some skills mentioned below in order to be successful in the field of law.

Good intellect

Good judgement of situation/people

Persuasion skills

Convincing skills

Ability to argue on a topic

Strong command over language

Interest in detail

Ability to assimilate as well as analyse facts

Fluency and clarity of speech

Good presentation skills

Confidence

Unbiased

Mental and physical stamina

Interest in research

Popular Law Entrance Exams

Law admissions at a majority of colleges and universities in India are done on the basis of entrance exams. Most of the law entrance exams conducted for admission in UG level law courses evaluate candidates on the basis of their aptitude/ knowledge on subjects such as General Knowledge, English, Mathematics (Numerical Ability), Logical Reasoning and Legal Aptitude. On the other hand, popular law exams for PG level law courses comprise questions from subject areas such as Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence and other law subjects (Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, Environment Law and Human Rights Law, etc).

Some popular law entrance exams that aspirants should consider appearing for in order to secure admission in the best law colleges in the country are mentioned below:

Check the complete list of law entrance exams in India.  

Law Courses

Candidates can pursue degree, diploma as well as certificate law courses at UG, PG and PhD levels.

Degree law courses: Candidates can obtain either an integrated law degree (such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BSc LLB, BCom LLB etc) after clearing Class 12th or a normal LLB degree after clearing graduation. The duration of an integrated LLB degree is usually five years and that of a normal LLB degree is three years.

Diploma law courses: Candidates can pursue diploma courses at both UG and PG levels. The duration of diploma or PG diploma law courses usually ranges from one to three years.

Certificate law courses: Certificate law courses are basically short-term programmes whose duration ranges from two weeks to six months.       

Mode of Law Education

Candidates can pursue law courses as full-time, part-time, distance/ correspondence, online, and virtual classroom programmes. However, it may be noted that a majority of law courses in India are offered as full-time programmes by private colleges and universities. Nonetheless, some law courses in India are also offered by public/ government or public private institutions in the country.  

Law Specialisations

Law courses in India are offered across various specialisations. Given below are some of the popular law specialisations that candidates can choose to make their career in:

Law Subjects & Syllabus

Law subjects taught in a UG or PG course may vary from college to college. However, given below is the law syllabus that is usually taught in UG and PG level law courses offered in India:

Law Syllabus (UG Courses)

Course Subjects

Bachelor of Law (LLB)

  • Legal Method
  • History-I
  • Political Science-I
  • Law of Contract – I
  • Economics-I
  • English and Legal Language
  • History – II
  • Political Science – II
  • Sociology
  • Economics – II
  • Law of Contract – II
  • Techniques of Communication, Client Interviewing and Counselling
  • Business Law
  • Family Law – I
  • Constitutional Law – I
  • Law of Crime – I
  • Communication and Advocacy Skill – II 
  • Law of Torts and Consumer Protection
  • Family Law – II
  • Constitutional Law – II
  • Law of Crime – II
  • Administrative Law
  • Code of Civil Procedure – I
  • Code of Criminal Procedure – I
  • Law of Evidence
  • Corporate Law
  • Jurisprudence – I
  • Human Rights Law
  • Code of Civil Procedure – II
  • Code of Criminal Procedure – II
  • Public International Law
  • Investment and Competition Law
  • Property Law
  • Jurisprudence – II
  • Land Laws
  • Law and Technology
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Law Relating to Labour Management Relation in India
  • Environment Law
  • Tax Law
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution
  • International Trade Law
  • Law, Poverty and Development
  • Labour Law – II
  • Interpretation of Statutes
  • International Commercial Law
  • Legal Ethics and Court Craft
  • Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing
  • Optional Subjects (Any one of the ollowing):
  • Women and Law
  • Air and Space Law
  • Election Law
  • International Commercial Law
  • Banking and Insurance Law
  • International Humanitarian Law
  • Indirect Taxes
  • International Refugee Law
  • Criminology
  • Socio-Economic Offences
  • International Economic Law
  • Private International Law
  • Law of International Organisations
  • Heath Care Law

BA LLB

  • Legal Method
  • Law of Contract-I
  • Legal English and Communication Skills
  • History-I
  • Sociology-I
  • Law of Contract –II
  • Law of Torts and Consumer Protection
  • History-II
  • Sociology-II
  • Political Science-I
  • Family Law-I
  • Constitutional Law-I
  • Law of Crimes-I
  • Economics-I
  • Political Science-II
  • Family Law-II
  • Constitutional Law-II
  • Law of Crimes-II
  • Administrative Law
  • Economics-II
  • Environmental Studies and Environmental Laws
  • Law of Evidence
  • Corporate Law
  • Code of Civil Procedure
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Jurisprudence
  • International Law
  • Property Law
  • Investment and Competition Law
  • Code of Criminal Procedure
  • Labour Law-I
  • Tax Law
  • Law and Emerging Technologies
  • Human Rights
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Labour Law-II
  • Interpretation of Statutes
  • International Trade Law
  • Legal Ethics and Court Crafts
  • Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing
  • Land and Real Estate Laws

BSc LLB

  • Legal Method
  • Law of Contract I
  • English and Legal Language
  • Electronic Devices, Circuits and IC Technology
  • Concepts of Chemistry
  • Introductory Biotechnology and Cell Biology
  • Electronics Lab, Chemistry Lab, Biotechnology Lab
  • History
  • Law of Contract II
  • Techniques of Communication, Client Interviewing & counseling
  • Digital Electronics: Microprocessors and Interfaces
  • Techniques of Chemistry
  • Tools and techniques of Biotechnology
  • Business Law
  • Family Law I
  • Constitutional I
  • Law of Crimes I
  • Advocacy skills
  • Telecom Engineering Fundamentals, Data and Wireless Communication
  • Polymer Chemistry
  • Genetics, Immunology and Molecular Biotechnology
  • Law of Torts and Consumer Protection
  • Family Law II
  • Constitutional Law II
  • Law of Crimes II
  • Administrative Law
  • Programming Fundamentals & Data Base Management System
  • Physical Pharmacy
  • Microbial Biotechnology & Fermentation Technology
  • Code of Civil Procedure I
  • Code of Criminal Procedure I
  • Law of Evidence
  • Jurisprudence I
  • Human Right Law
  • Synthetic Organic Chemistry
  • Plant and Animal Biotechnology
  • Code of Civil Procedure II
  • Code of Criminal Procedure II
  • Public International Law
  • Investment and Competition law
  • Property Law
  • Jurisprudence II
  • Information theory, Coding and Network Programming
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Land Laws
  • Laws and Technology
  • Intellectual Property Right
  • Labor Law I
  • Genetic Engineering and Genomics
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution
  • International Trade Law
  • Law, Poverty and Development
  • Internet, E-Commerce , Multimedia Tools & Information System Security
  • Computer Lab
  • Legal Ethics and Court Craft
  • Drafting, Pleading & Conveyancing

BBA LLB

  • Legal Method
  • Law of Contract-I
  • Legal English and Communication Skills
  • Principles of Management
  • Managerial Economics
  • Law of Contract –II
  • Law of Torts and Consumer Protection
  • Financial Management
  • Organisational behavior
  • Marketing Management
  • Family Law-I
  • Constitutional Law-I
  • Law of Crimes-I
  • Business Environment & Ethical Practices
  • Human Resource Management
  • Family Law-II
  • Constitutional Law-II
  • Law of Crimes-II
  • Administrative Law
  • Strategic Management
  • Environmental Studies and Environmental Laws
  • Law of Evidence
  • Corporate Law
  • Code of Civil Procedure
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Jurisprudence
  • International Law
  • LLB 306 Property Law
  • Investment and Competition Law
  • Code of Criminal Procedure
  • Labour Law-I
  • Tax Law
  • Law and Emerging Technologies
  • Human Rights
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Labour Law-II
  • Interpretation of Statutes
  • International Trade Law
  • Legal Ethics and Court Crafts
  • Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing
  • Land and Real Estate Laws

BCom LLB

  • Business Statistics
  • Financial Accounting
  • Auditing I
  • English I
  • Law of Contract I
  • Woman, Child & the Law
  • Proficiency (Non-credit)
  • Business Communication
  • Economics
  • English II
  • Law of Contract II
  • History of Courts, Legislation & Legal Profession In India
  • Consumer Protection Law
  • Environmental Studies
  • Corporate Accounting
  • Business Finance
  • Law of Contract III
  • Constitutional Law I
  • Laws of Crime I
  • Legal language
  • Foreign Language I
  • Interpretation of Statutes
  • Constitutional Law II
  • Laws of Crimes II
  • Law of Evidence
  • Law of Tort
  • Family law I
  • Research Methodology
  • Foreign language II
  • Jurisprudence I
  • Civil Procedure Code I
  • Labor Law I
  • Company Law I
  • Criminal Procedure Code I
  • Family Law II
  • Jurisprudence II
  • Civil Procedure Code II
  • Labor Law II
  • Company Law II
  • Drafting, Pleading & Conveyancing
  • Moot Court I
  • Public International Law
  • Property law
  • Taxation I
  • Administrative Law
  • Human Rights & Humanitarian Law
  • Moot Court II
  • Private International Law
  • Environmental Law
  • Taxation II
  • Land Laws including ceiling
  • Moot Court III
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Arbitration, Conciliation and Alternative Dispute Resolution System
  • Banking & Financial Institutions including negotiable instruments
  • Moot Court IV
  • Criminology and Penology
  • Project Report & Pre-trial Preparation
  • Professional ethics
  • Public Interest Lawyering, Legal aid & Para Legal services
  • Moot Court V

Law Syllabus (PG Courses)

Course Syllabus

LLB

  • Labour Law
  • Criminal Law
  • Law of Torts & Consumer Protection Act
  • Law of Evidence
  • Human Rights & International Law
  • Property Law
  • Legal Aids
  • Civil Procedure Code
  • Legal Writing
  • Code of Criminal Procedure
  • Land Laws (including ceiling and other local laws)
  • Optional Papers- Contract/ Trust/ Women & Law/ Criminology/ International Economics Law
  • Family Law
  • Professional Ethics
  • Constitutional Law
  • Arbitration, Concillation & Alternative
  • Environmental Law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Law of Contract
  • Interpretation of Statutes
  • Administrative Law
  • Company Law
  • Investment & Securities Law/ Law of Taxation/ Co-operative Law/ Banking Law including Negotiable Instruments Act
  • Comparative Law/ Law of Insurance/ Conflict of Laws/ Intellectual Property Law

 Master of Laws (LLM)

  • Core subjects
  • Law and Social Transformation in India
  • Constitutionalism
  • Legal Research and Methodology
  • Judicial Process
  • Optional subjects to be taken in the three semesters
  • Constitutional Law
  • Family Law
  • Torts
  • Crimes
  • International Law
  • Contract and Insurance
  • Administrative Law
  • Business Administration
  • Labour Management Relations
  • Taxation
  • Regulated Economy
  • Administration of Justice
  • Human Rights
  • Environmental Law
  • Intellectual Property
  • Law, Science and Technology
  • Jurisprudence
  • New Economic Law: WTO in Context
  • Alternate Dispute Resolution System

Master of Business Law (MBL)

  • Contract Law    
  • Banking Law 
  • Corporate Law   
  • Industrial Relations Law 
  • Environmental Law
  • Investment Laws
  • Insurance Law
  • Law relating to Foreign Trade
  • Intellectual Property Law
  • Taxation of Corporations

MBL-LLM

  • Research Based Learning in Law: Models & Methods
  • Legal System & Democratic Governance : Comparative Perspective
  • Environmental Governance
  • Refugee & International Humanitarian Law
  • Intl. & Comparative Law of IPRs
  • Corporate Governance
  • Changing Conception of Justice & Globalised Legal Order
  • Concept & Development of Human Rights
  • Changing Conception of Justice & Globalised Legal Order
  • Financial Market Regulations
  • International Human Rights Law
  • International Trade Law
  • Electives
  • International Criminal Law
  • Human Rights, Women & Development
  • Human Rights, Child & Development
  • Corporate Mergers & Acquisitions
  • Regulation of Banking & Insurance
  • Taxation Law
  • Corporate Mergers & Acquisitions
  • Regulation of Banking & Insurance
  • Taxation Law
  • Corporate Mergers & Acquisitions
  • Regulation of Banking & Insurance

Law Job Profiles & Top Companies

Becoming a lawyer is not the only job profile one can pursue after completing their law courses. Aspirants can also make their law careers in the job profiles mentioned below:

Law Job Profile Description

Lawyer

In this job profile aspirants are also sometimes referred to as advocates. A lawyer mostly represents one of the parties/ clients in a trial at court. As part of this job profile, one needs to cross examine witnesses and then list reasons/ facts around why the court should give the judgement in favour of their clients.

Legal Advisors

In this job profile, one is expected to counsel clients on legal rights and obligations. Legal advisors mostly research laws applicable to a particular case and thereafter go through previous judgements passed in cases similar to the one their client is currently facing and thereafter help them in listing out how they can defend themselves.

Judges

As a Judge one has to ensure that justice is administered and legal rights of all the involved parties are safeguarded. A Judge presides over trials/hearings wherein s/he has to listen to the case presented by lawyers.

Solicitors

Solicitors give legal advice and represent their client in legal matters. Solicitors mostly work for firms which take up cases related to their area of work.

Legal Executives

People opting to work for such a job profile typically advise their employers on legal matters. They also work on litigation cases for their firm. They also perform administrative functions along with handling in-house legal problems such as checking deeds, issuing writs, collecting information for affidavits as well as draft legal documents. Legal executives also represent their business house when they discuss legal issues with other firms.

Notary Public

 

Notaries are appointed by the central government for the whole or specific part of the country. The various State governments also appoint notaries who work for the whole or a specific part of the state. Any person who has been practicing Law (as a lawyer) for minimum ten years is eligible to apply for a notary post. As per the Notaries Act 1952, the function of a Notary is as follows:

  • To verify, authenticate, certify or attest the execution of any instrument
  • To administer oath to or take an affidavit from any person
  • To translate and verify the translation, of any document from one language into another
  • To act as commissioner, to record evidence in any civil or criminal trial if so directed by the court or authority
  • To act as arbitrator, mediator, or conciliator if so required

Oath Commissioners

Anyone who works under this job profile is authorised to verify affidavits. An Oath Commissioner is appointed by the Chief Justice and is usually (though not always) a solicitor. The functions of an Oath Commissioner are as follows:

  • Makes sure that the evidence in question is in written form (the draft affidavit)
  • Establishes that the person before him/her has read the draft affidavit and fully understands the contents
  • Makes a person swear that the affidavit is true by raising the appropriate Testament in the right hand and repeating the words of the oath
  • Verifies that the affidavit was properly sworn by completing a “jurat” on the affidavit

Top Law Companies in India

Salaries earned by law graduates typically vary on the law specialisation they choose along with the company they join. After completing a law course aspirants can work as an understudy with lawyers or even join a corporate company. Know the top law companies here.

The top law companies that are known to hire law graduates are listed below:

  1. Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co.
  2. AZB & Partners
  3. Khaitan & CO
  4. J Sagar Associates
  5. Luthra & Luthra Law Offices
  6. Trilegal
  7. S&R Associates
  8. Economic Laws Practice
  9. Desai & Diwanji
  10. Talwar Thakore & Associates

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